The database server returns an execution code whenever an SQL statement is executed, available in SQLCA.SQLCODE. If the code is a negative number, an SQL error has occurred.

Just as we checked the SQLCA.SQLCODE for the NOTFOUND condition, we can also check the code for database errors (negative SQLCODE). The SQLCA.SQLCODE should be checked immediately after each SQL statement that may fail, including DECLARE, OPEN, FETCH, etc. For simplicity of the examples, the error handling in these programs is minimal.