Runtime stack functions

To pass values between a C function and a program, the C function and the runtime system use the runtime stack.

Stack function basics

The parameters passed to the C function must be popped from the stack at the beginning of the C function, and the return values expected by the Genero BDL call must be pushed on the stack before leaving the C function.

The int parameter of the C function defines the number of input parameters passed on the stack, and the function must return an int value defining the number of values returned on the stack.

Note:

If you don't pop / push the specified number of parameters / return values, you corrupt the stack and get a fatal error.

Pop parameters from the stack

The runtime system library includes a set of functions to retrieve the values passed as parameters on the stack. This table shows the library functions provided to pop values from the stack into C buffers:

Table 1. Library functions provided to pop values from the stack into C buffers
Function Data type Details
void popdate(int4 *dst); DATE 4-byte integer value corresponding to days since 12/31/1899.
void popbigint(bigint *dst); BIGINT 8-byte integer value.
void popint(mint *dst); INTEGER System dependent integer value (int)
void popshort(int2 *dst); SMALLINT 2-byte integer value
void poplong(int4 *dst); INTEGER 4-byte integer value
void popflo(float *dst); SMALLFLOAT 4-byte floating point value
void popdub(double *dst); FLOAT 8-byte floating point value
void popdec(dec_t *dst); DECIMAL See structure definition in $FGLDIR/include/f2c headers
void popquote(char *dst, int size); CHAR(n) The size parameter defines the size of the char buffer (with the '\0').

The trailing blanks are kept.

void popvchar(char *dst, int size); VARCHAR(n) The size parameter defines the size of the char buffer (with the '\0').

The trailing blanks are kept.

void popstring(char *dst, int size); VARCHAR(n) The size parameter defines the size of the char buffer (with the '\0').

This function trims all the trailing spaces, even the last one. There is no way to distinguish from NULL if the string has only spaces.

void popdtime(dtime_t *dst, int size); DATETIME See structure definition in $FGLDIR/include/f2c headers
size = TU_DTENCODE(start, end)
void popinv(intrvl_t *dst, int size); INTERVAL

See structure definition in $FGLDIR/include/f2c headers

size = TU_IENCODE(len, start, end)
void poplocator(ifx_loc_t **dst); BYTE, TEXT See structure definition in $FGLDIR/include/f2c headers
Important:

This function pops the pointer of a ifx_loc_t object.

When using a pop function, the value is copied from the stack to the local C variable and the value is removed from the stack.

In a Genero program, strings (CHAR, VARCHAR) are not terminated by '\0'. Therefore, the C variable must have one additional character to store the '\0'. For example, the equivalent of a VARCHAR(100) in Genero BDL programs is a char x[101] in C.

Stack introspection

A set of C API functions are provided to query information on the parameters passed on the stack to a C function. Query for the parameter type and the actual size of a character string value, to adapt the buffer receiving the parameter.

Table 2. Library functions to introspect the runtime stack
Function Description
const char *fglcapi_peekStackType(void) Returns the type name of the topmost value on the stack as a string.

For example, if the value on the stack is a CHAR(100), the function returns the string "CHAR(100)".

Note:

If the current value on the stack is a string literal, the returned type name is "STRING".

int fglcapi_peekStackBufferSize(void) Returns the size (in bytes) for the topmost value on the stack, to allocate a C char buffer, when using pop* function to get character strings.

String pop functions such as popquote() and popvchar() require a C char buffer to be allocated. To allocate the buffer dynamically, use the fglcapi_peekStackBufferSize() function to get the required buffer size.

Allocating char buffers with the proposed size avoids truncating values returned from the stack.

Note:

When the argument type is different from CHAR, VARCHAR and STRING, the size is the total number of bytes needed for the string representation of the maximal possible value. For example, with a DECIMAL(32,5), the size would be 35 bytes (including sign, decimal separator and string terminator).

Stack introspection example:
int my_function(int n)
{
    int sz;
    char *buf;
    sz = fglcapi_peekStackBufferSize();
    buf = malloc(sz);
    popstring(buf, sz);
    // ...
    free(buf);
    return 0;
}

Push returns on the stack

To return a value from the C function, you must use one of the functions provided in the runtime system library.

Table 3. Functions provided in the runtime system library to return a value from a C function
Function Data type Details
void pushdate(int4 val); DATE 4-byte integer value corresponding to days since 12/31/1899.
void pushbigint(bigint val); BIGINT 8-byte integer value.
void pushdec(const dec_t *val, const unsigned decp); DECIMAL See structure definition in $FGLDIR/include/f2c headers
void pushint(mint val); INTEGER System dependent integer value (int)
void pushlong(int4 val); INTEGER 4-byte integer value
void pushshort(int2 val); SMALLINT 2-byte integer value
void pushflo(float *val); SMALLFLOAT 4-byte floating point value.
Important:

This function takes a pointer!

void pushdub(double *val); FLOAT 8-byte floating point value.
Important:

This function takes a pointer!

void pushquote(const char *val, int len); CHAR(n) len = strlen(val) (without '\0')
void pushvchar(const char *val, int len); VARCHAR(n) len = strlen(val) (without '\0')
void pushdtime(const dtime_t *val); DATETIME See structure definition in $FGLDIR/include/f2c headers
void pushinv(const intrvl_t *val); INTERVAL See structure definition in $FGLDIR/include/f2c headers

When using a push function, the value of the C variable is copied at the top of the stack; therefore the scope and lifespan of the C variable does not matter.

To simplify migration of IBM® I4GL legacy C extensions using ret*() style functions, Genero supports the following synonyms:

Table 4. Return value functions synonyms
Function Equivalent
void retdate(int4 val) pushdate
void retdec(const dec_t *val) pushdec
void retmoney(const dec_t *val) pushdec
void retint(int val) pushint
void retlong(int4 val) pushlong
void retshort(int2 val) pushshort
void retflo(float *val) pushflo
void retdub(double *val) pushdub
void retquote(const char *val) pushquote
void retstring(const char *val) pushquote
void retvchar(const char *val) pushvchar
void retdtime(const dtime_t *val) pushdtime
void retinv(const intrvl_t *val) pushinv
Note:

Pay attention to the retdec(), retmoney(), retquote() and retvchar() functions. These do not have the same signature as the equivalent push*() functions.